For social and economic development of any country, water is a necessary resource for any community. Water security and management are key factors in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. Securing and properly managing water as a resource is, hence, becoming ever more important by the day. The climate crisis is increasing the severity of drought across the world. The crisis is also responsible for the deteriorating water quality. This deteriorating condition has, hence, made it a priority for many countries to discover ways to properly secure water sources and manage water distribution..
Like many countries in the global south, India faces severe water challenges. According to reports, around 163 million people in India have no access to clean water close to home. India’s 1.3 billion people consumes one-fourth of the total groundwater extracted globally, more than that of China and USA combined. For a country like India, agriculture is the most important sector and this sector alone consumes 80 per cent of India’s total water consumption. Hence, proper management of water is very important to India’s agricultural production.
While agricultural sector is the biggest consumer of freshwater resources, Chemicals and heavy metals from industrial and municipal wastewater contaminate waterways. Contaminants such as chemicals, nutrients, and heavy metals are carried from farms, factories, and cities by streams and rivers into our bays and estuaries; from there they travel out to sea. Nevertheless, India appears to have taken seriously the water challenges it has been facing.